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Journal Issue: Vol.11, No.2 - April 2012

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A Comparative Study of Mucinous and Serous Adenocarcinomas of the Ovary: Are they the same disease?

Dr. Emmad Habib

  1. Dr. Emmad Habib
    Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy, with epithelial tumours being the largest group (90%). Aim of this Study: The objective of this study was to identify the clinical and treatment outcome differences between stage 3 and 4 mucinous and serous ovarian carcinomas with regard to survival and disease free survival and the impact of the histological grade on prognosis. Results: Between June 2005 and December 2009, 186 serous ovarian carcinoma patients and 36 mucinous patients were diagnosed and treated at the gynecology unit of the clinical oncology department, faculty of medicine, Cairo University, Egypt. Those cases were included in the present study with a minimal follow up period of 2 years. For the serous group the number of relapsing cases after achieving a complete remission was 12 within the first year of follow-up (6.6%). Salvage surgery was performed to 21 cases (11.5%) not achieving initial CR, with 18 of those (85.7%) performing optimal debulking. After the first year 51 cases achieving CR relapsed (27.4%). Peritoneal relapse was in 42 cases (82.4%), liver metastases in 6 cases (11.8%)


Changes in Coronary Heart Disease Risk Profile of Adults with an Intellectual Disability Following a Physical Activity Intervention

Dr. Sarah J. Moss

  1. Dr. Sarah J. Moss
    PhD, MBA
    Physical activity, Sport and Recreation in the School of Biokinetics, Recreation and Sport Science,rnNorth-West University (Potchefstroom Campus)

Background: Regular physical activity is one of the modifiable risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Persons with intellectual disability present with patterns of morbidity similar to the general population. Knowledge of the CHD risk factors and the changes a physical activity intervention may have on theses risk factors will facilitate future intervention programs. Methods: A cohort of 100 males and females between the ages of 21 and 73 years with ID living in a community group home in the North-West Province of South Africa was recruited. A CHD risk profile was compiled by means of a questionnaire and physical assessment (resting blood pressure, body-mass index, non-fasting glucose and cholesterol and cardiorespiratory fitness). After a 12-week physical activity intervention three days per week the baseline measurements were repeated. Results: The results indicated that 85% of the participants were inactive and 67% were overweight and obese. Hypertension (6.1%) and smoking (6.1%) was low in this population with ID. Glucose concentrations above the recommended cut-off values were observed in 28% of the participants and 23% of the participants presented with total cholesterol concentrations above normal. The physical activity intervention reduced inactivity to 50% and resulted in a significant increase in cardiorespiratory fitness and a decrease in percentage body fat in both males and females. Conclusion: Inactivity is a major risk factor in this population with ID living in a community group setting. The implementation of the physical activity intervention significantly reduced the risk factors for CHD.


Increased Monomeric C-reactive Protein Expression After Ischaemic Stroke may be Involved in Promotion of Alzheimer's Pathology

M. Slevin, L. Badimon, S. Matou, R. Al-Baradie, J. Krupinski

  1. M. Slevin
    Institut Catalŕ de Cičncies Cardiovasculars Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Pavelló del Convent Sant Antoni Maria Claret
  2. L. Badimon
    Institut Catalŕ de Cičncies Cardiovasculars Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau,rnPavelló del Convent Sant Antoni Maria Claret
  3. S. Matou
    SBCHS, John Dalton Building, Manchester Metropolitan University
  4. R. Al-Baradie
    3Al Majmaáh University, Majmaah City
  5. J. Krupinski
    Division of Cerebrovascular Diseases, Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitari, Mútua de Terrassa

The incidence of dementia increases dramatically in patients 1-5 years following acute ischaemic stroke although the exact reasons for this are unknown. Here, using immunohistochemistry we demonstrate that the monomeric tissue-soluble form of C-reactive protein (mCRP) becomes strongly expressed in both Alzheimer’s plaques and microvessels after stroke however is undetectable in dementia patients not having suffered stroke. Using culture of vascular endothelial cells we further show that mCRP besides being angiogenic, can up-regulate both tau and Insulin growth factor receptor-1 (IRS-1) substrate phosphorylation suggesting a role in the pathological development of this disease.


Invasive Ability in Chordoma

Dr. Takahiko Naka

  1. Dr. Takahiko Naka
    PhD, MD
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyushu Rosai Hospital

Chordoma is an uncommon malignant bone tumor that originates from the remnants of embryonic notochord. Chordoma frequently recurs after excision, which suggests its locally strong invasive ability. Expression of tumor-associated proteinases, including matrix metalloproteinases-1 and –2, cathapsin B and K, urokinase type plasminogen activator, have been shown to have an important role in invasive growth in chordoma. Some of them are elevated in invasion fronts or correlated with the expression of low-molecularweight cytokeratin and prognosis. Cell adhesion molecules also contribute to the invasive growth of chordoma with both epithelial and mesenchymal characters. Decreased E-cadherin expression and increased N-cadherin expression is considered to lead to the tumor aggressiveness of chordoma. Chordoma frequently expresses c-met proto oncogene product, c-MET. c-MET expression correlates with proteinase expression, which indicates the role of c-MET in the invasive growth of chordoma.


Molecular Properties of Lymph Node Micrometastasis as an Important Therapeutic Target in Gastric Cancer

Dr. Takaaki Arigami, Dr. Yoshikazu Uenosono, Dr. Shigehiro Yanagita, Dr. Akihiro Nakajo, Dr. Sumiya Ishigami, Dr, Shoji Natsugoe

  1. Dr. Takaaki Arigami
    PhD, MD
    Department of Surgical Oncology and Digestive Surgery, Field of Oncology, Course of Advanced Therapeutics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences
  2. Dr. Yoshikazu Uenosono
    PhD, MD
    Department of Surgical Oncology and Digestive Surgery, Field of Oncology, Course of Advanced Therapeutics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences
  3. Dr. Shigehiro Yanagita
    PhD, MD
    Department of Surgical Oncology and Digestive Surgery, Field of Oncology, Course of Advanced Therapeutics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences
  4. Dr. Akihiro Nakajo
    PhD, MD
    Department of Surgical Oncology and Digestive Surgery, Field of Oncology, Course of Advanced Therapeutics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences
  5. Dr. Sumiya Ishigami
    PhD, MD
    Department of Surgical Oncology and Digestive Surgery, Field of Oncology, Course of Advanced Therapeutics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences
  6. Dr, Shoji Natsugoe
    PhD, MD
    Department of Surgical Oncology and Digestive Surgery, Field of Oncology, Course of Advanced Therapeutics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences

Recently, the existence of lymph node micrometastasis including isolated tumor cells has been focused on during the development of molecular diagnostic techniques for lymph node metastasis in various malignant neoplasms. Although the clinical significance of lymph node micrometastasis remains controversial in gastric cancer, it is crucial as a strategic target during clinical management. Lymph node micrometastasis, which is the initial stage of lymph node metastasis, correlates with lymphangiogenesis. Furthermore, the use of specific lymphatic endothelial markers such as D2-40 has demonstrated a strong relationship between lymph node micrometastasis and lymphatic invasion by primary gastric tumor cells. Signaling pathways involving various molecules, such as cadherin, chemokines, and vascular endothelial growth factor, are involved in the formative process of lymph node metastasis. Currently, minimally invasive surgery using endoscopic and laparoscopic procedures is performed in consideration of post-surgical quality of life (QOL). However, the balance between QOL and curability against gastric tumor cells should be regarded as an important determinant of surgical treatment in patients with gastric cancer. Therefore, if sentinel node navigation surgery based on lymph node micrometastatic status was established in patients with gastric cancer, minimally invasive surgery with personalized lymphadenectomy could be performed safely. This article presents an overview of the molecular detection and properties of lymph node micrometastasis as an important strategic target in gastric cancer.


Pseudo-Progression Phenomenon During Temozolomide Combination Chemoradiotherapy for Malignant Glioma

Dr. Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Wael Saleem, Yumi Satoh, Masaru Wakatsuki, Katsuyuki Shirai, Ken-ichi Sugawara, Shin-ei Noda, Masahiko Okamoto, Yuhei Yoshimoto, Takashi Nakano

  1. Dr. Yoshiyuki Suzuki
    PhD, MD
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine
  2. Wael Saleem
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine
  3. Yumi Satoh
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine
  4. Masaru Wakatsuki
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine
  5. Katsuyuki Shirai
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine
  6. Ken-ichi Sugawara
    Department of Neurosurgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine
  7. Shin-ei Noda
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine
  8. Masahiko Okamoto
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine
  9. Yuhei Yoshimoto
    Department of Neurosurgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine
  10. Takashi Nakano
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine

Purpose: Temozolomide (TMZ) concomitant with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by adjuvant TMZ therapy is the standard treatment for patients with malignant glioma. Pseudo-progression, a transient increase in tumor volume, has been reported to develop mainly following the exposure to CRT. We investigated pseudo-progression, especially that developing during CRT, in patients with malignant glioma treated with TMZ combination CRT. Materials and methods: A total of 26 consecutively treated patients with malignant glioma treated with TMZ combination CRT (TMZ: 75 mg/day, RT: 60Gy in 30 fraction) followed by adjuvant TMZ (150 mg/day, Day 1-5, every 28 days) were investigated. There were 5 patients with grade 3 glioma (anaplastic astrocytoma, etc.), 17 with glioblastoma, 1 with gliosarcoma and 3 with high grade glioma without confirmation of the histological grade. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed before CRT, 3 weeks after the initiation of CRT, at the end of CRT, and 4 weeks after CRT. Results: Nine of the 26 patients (35%) showed an increase in tumor volume either at 3 weeks after the initiation of CRT or at the end of CRT, or both. Among these, tumor volumes were continuously increased at 4 weeks after completion of CRT in 3 patients. Hence, 6 of 26 patients (23%) were classified as having a “pseudo-progression.” Conclusion: Pseudo-progression can develop during TMZ combination CRT in patients with malignant glioma. This phenomenon indicates that extra caution is necessary to carefully set the target volume of radiotherapy during treatment. confirmation of the histological grade, were 5, 17, 1 and 3 patients, respectively. The numbers of patients treated with gross total resection, subtotal resection and biopsy only were 17, 6 and 3 patients, respectively.


Recent Advances in Strategies for Immunotherapy of Human Papillomavirus-Induced Lesions

Dr Martin Kast, Dr Shreya Kanodia, Dr Diane M. Da Silva

  1. Dr Martin Kast
    PhD
    1Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California
  2. Dr Shreya Kanodia
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California
  3. Dr Diane M. Da Silva
    Department of Gynaecology & Obstetrics, University of Southern California

Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced lesions are distinct in that they have targetable foreign antigens, the expression of which is necessary to maintain the cancerous phenotype. Hence, they pose as a very attractive target for “proof of concept” studies in the development of therapeutic vaccines. This review will focus on the most recent clinical trials for the immunotherapy of mucosal and cutaneous HPV-induced lesions as well as emerging therapeutic strategies that have been tested in pre-clinical models for HPV-induced lesions. Progress in peptide-based vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, viral/bacterial vector-based vaccines, immune response modifiers, photodynamic therapy and T cell receptor based therapy for HPV will be discussed.


The Chemo Club: Insights on Facilitating Participation in an Exercise Club for Cancer Patients

Dr. Pam McGrath, Michael Bouwman, Hamish Holewa

  1. Dr. Pam McGrath
    MA, PhD
    International Program of Psycho-Social Health Research (IPP-SHR) Centre of National Research on Disability and Rehabilitation Medicine, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University
  2. Michael Bouwman
    LLB
    Institute of Health and Social Science, CQUniversity, (Prior Appointment)
  3. Hamish Holewa
    B Sc (Comp Sci), BEd, GradDip HEcon
    CQUniversity Health Collaborative Research Networks Program Manager, CQUniversity Health CRN, CQUniversity

The present article makes a contribution to this emerging literature by presenting findings from a study exploring patients’ experience with the ‘Chemo Club’, an exercise program for cancer patients based in Perth, Western Australia. The findings presented explore a range of interfacing factors associated with the Chemo Club that attract and hold members to the program including: factors associated with history and ethos of the CC; factors associated with the structure and organisation of CC; and factors associated with the individual cancer patient.


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